‘Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine’ (MDMA) banyak digunakan oleh pengunjung pusat-pusat hiburan di negara ini juga dikenali sebagai Ecstacy atau XTC. Ia merupakan analog meskalin dan amfetamin. Dipanggil ‘feel good drug’ dan boleh meningkatkan daya tahan pengguna. Pil MDMA seringkali dibentuk dengan ikon atau logo bagi memenuhi citarasa pengguna muda.
[ view in English ]
Mudah dirangsang, menggeletar, tidak dapat tidur, berpeluh, bibir dan lidah kering, pernafasan tidak normal, kehilangan berat badan, menunjukkan ragam, banyak bercakap, kebimbangan, kadar denyutan nadi yang tinggi, saiz anak mata membesar, tabiat menghasut, symptom paranoia dan halusinasi.
Kehilangan berat badan, kekurangan nutrient, masalah tidur yang kronik, tekanan darah tinggi, paranoia, kebimbangan atau kegelisahan, kurang kawalan emosi, tekanan yang teruk, tingkahlaku ganas, psikosis dadah atau membunuh diri.
Bentuk dan warna pil Ecstacy. The many shapes and colors of Ecstacy
Ecstasy has both stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. Like other stimulants, ecstasy causes increased heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature.. The hallucinogenic properties lead to altered perception, which can also lead to increased confidence and euphoria
Users may experience clenching of the jaw, grinding of the teeth, nausea, anxiety, as well as profuse sweating, a tingling feeling and blurred vision. Used in high doses, MDMA may lead to an amphetamine like psychosis, vomiting, convulsions and kidney failure. Overdose is characterized by very high body temperatures and blood pressure, accelerated heartbeat and hallucinations.
In addition to deaths caused directly by the drug, people have died by it’s side effect of becoming overheated, sometimes through the combination of ecstasy use, vigorous dancing and hot humid venues, or from dilution hyponatremia, a flooding of the brain due to excess fluid consumption.
Method of Use
Ecstasy is usually taken orally either in tablet or capsule form. The powdered form can be snorted, smoked or injected. In some cases, the pill is crushed and swallowed inside a folded napkin, known as “parachuting” or “bombing”, or is inserted in the anus or vagina, a method known as “shelving”, “plugging” or “shafting”.
Physical and psychological symptoms.
Problems encounter with MDMA are similar to those found with the use of amphetamines and cocaine. Psychological difficulties, including confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, severe anxiety, and paranoia sometimes weeks after taking MDMA even in some cases, psychotic episodes have been reported.
Physical symptoms such as muscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movement, faintness, and chills or sweating. Increases in heart rate and blood pressure leads to high risk especially for people with circulatory or heart disease.
Recent research findings link MDMA use to long-term damage to those parts of the brain critical to thought and memory. The drug causes damage to the neurons that use the chemical serotonin to communicate with other neurons.
MDMA is also related in structure and effects to methamphetamine, which has been shown to cause degeneration of neurons containing the neurotransmitter dopamine. Damage to dopamine containing neurons is the underlying cause of the motor disturbances seen in Parkinson’s disease. Symptoms of this disease begin with lack of coordination and tremors, and can eventually result in a form of paralysis.